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18th International Conference on Global Toxicology and Risk Assessment, will be organized around the theme “Frontiers in Toxicology & Risk Assessment”

Global Toxicology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Global Toxicology 2019

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\r\n Toxicology Risk Assessment gives details of a product’s consistency with measures such as health and security and market acknowledgment all over the parts of the product in areas of manufacturing and distributing. Toxicological assessments helps in determining if the product poses a potential risk for the toxicological ranges measured. Hence the Toxicology studies are most essential in Product management and Product testing.

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\r\n Clinical Toxicology is the field of study that involves investigation of effects which are adverse, and the diseases by the toxins to the normal human body. The Variety of sciences that are included under the study of Clinical Toxicology is pharmacological, pathological, and areas of biochemistry. Clinical Toxicology is one of the studies that can be not only chosen to practice by physicians but also have its contributions in other health professionals such as physician assistants, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, & health professionals. The inclusion of a session on Clinical Toxicology would be excellent to gain further knowledge on Toxicology.

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\r\n The Cardiovascular Toxicology is the field of Toxicology that deals and studies with the agonistic and antagonistic impacts on the blood circulatory system which result from the introduction to chemicals. It is the study about the information of the hindrance actions of the newly introduced cardiovascular drugs. Some of the drugs whose impact is on Circulations and Central nervous system which ultimately affect that centres heart rhythm such as Arrhythmia or might as well cause cardiogenic shock or death or sometimes they show effect indirectly on circulation by inducing effects on Blood pressure which might be due to associated arrhythmias. Thus the study of these effect and related consequences has been a breakthrough in the phase of Cardiology and Toxicology.

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\r\n Neurotoxicology refers to the study of change in the science, structure, or mechanism of the neurological system following to effect caused by any sort of physical or a chemical mechanism. Advances in the field of research and study of the structure and function of the Neuronal system have excelled the study over the effects of chemicals and reagents for treating diseases such as various syndromes and diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and other effects of Anxiety and depression. However, some chemicals might lead to abominable effects that can limit their utility in treatment. Some of the drugs used for treatment of Cancers might also has their effects on the Nervous system and sensory impulses in various nerve endings and fragile sensory systems such as visual, tactile and Auditory responses. This session of Toxicology would mainly focus on investigating impacts of introduction to toxic substances.

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\r\n Toxicopathology is the analysis, investigation, development of risk assessment and risk management of the changes in the structural and functional aspects of cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by toxins, poisons, and physical operators and policies based on such information. Toxicopathology primarily deals with the mechanism by which this functional and the structural effect is induced. The session of Toxicopathology mainly covers the overall knowledge gain about the effects of toxins and different chemicals that effects on the various functions of the structural and functional units in the human body.

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\r\n Haemostasis is the first step of wound healing after the wound ceases to bleed due to a mechanism of Coagulation. If the process of haemostasis does not occur it might lead to an excess loss of blood which can lead to the hypovolemic shock or even death of the individual. The liquid monomer component of Methyl Methacrylate is a cytotoxic component which is associated frequently with fatal cardiorespiratory collapse in cases of Implantations of acrylic cements. And some of the cases where the usage of the NSAIDS may lead to an increased tendency of bleeding which can be considered fatal some times and thus the study of the effect of Haemostasis play a very important role in the field of Toxicology. Hence the study of the Knowledge is essential in cases of drug effects on Haemostasis.

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\r\n The liver is the site of biotransformation and detoxification of drugs and other cycles essential for life processes Majority of the drugs used show effects which might be direct or indirectly related to their use. In majority of the cases where one drug’s detoxification would be rather altered or disturbed when a hepatotoxic drug is included causing damage to the whole system. Some of the most common toxicants for the liver include natural solvents and substantial metals which are unusual classes of toxicants known to affect renal capacity. Hence the usage of a drug, will directly affects the performance of another drug when it directly affects the performance of the liver and kidneys. There is a need to study the drug effects in dependence to the drugs reaction in the body. Hence renal and hepatic data is considered most important in case of Toxicology studies.

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\r\n Environmental Toxicology is a detailed study of the eventual effects of chemicals on the earth that mostly include hazardous chemicals normally found in the earth. Environmental toxicology is usually linked to the study and examination of chemicals that affect the earth and environment starting from the point of regular Human use. Environmental Health Toxicology and Ecotoxicology are the major subclasses in this study, which mainly provides a better understanding over the processes which play a major role in the process of degradation by the means of Biotic and Abiotic sources. Hence this study is considered a major unit in the topic of Toxicology.

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\r\n Forensic toxicology is one of the wings of the Sciences Toxicology and Pharmacology which mainly deals about the study of the Impacts in legal and medical investigation of death with the help of other sciences such as Analytical chemistry and clinical chemistry along with Pharmacology and Toxicology. Interpretation of the obtained results in the study of forensic toxicology is the primary concern. The study includes all the samples that can be possibly tested such as Urine, Blood, Hair sample, other organisms are possibly tested by the help of Detection and Classification techniques such as Chromatography.  

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\r\n Immunotoxicology deals with the study of dysfunction of the immune system resulting from Subjection of an organism to a Drug. The immune dysfunction thus might be called as immunosuppression or altered immune responses such as, allergies, autoimmune diseases or inflammatory-based diseases or pathologies. Since the immune system plays a very important role in host defence to a disease, Pathogen and as well as in homeostasis of an organism, identification of an immunotoxic risk is significant in the protection of living organism. In the infant and before the age of being an adult the study is called to as Developmental Immunotoxicology

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\r\n Genetic Toxicology is the branch which deals with the study of the damages to the genes by means of chemical or Physical factors. Most of the damages to the genetic materials such as DNA and RNA are mostly repaired, if the process had a faulty mechanism in repairing or the process is not functional timely and correctly, these changes or the damages cause mutations and might tend to alteration or deletion of a particular gene. This Genetic Toxicity is thus defined as the changes or the effects to the genetic material resulting in inheritable or mutational defects. Various changes include breakage of the Chromosomes (clastogenesis), mutagenesis, aneugenesis or recombinations are some of the possible changes that might be alter the Genetic Material.

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\r\n Molecular toxicology is a field concerned with study of the effects of various chemical substances on living organisms. Molecular toxicology includes the Knowledge of applied fields of biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, toxicology, as well as academic research. Molecular toxicology involves research in biophysics and biochemistry heavily as well as application of the knowledge in laboratory and environmental processes. Sessions in the area of molecular toxicology studies the effects of chemicals on live microscopic organisms. This form of toxicology includes the study of both naturally occurring and synthetic components as chemicals and other molecules. Also considered are the effects of factors such as genetic, physiologic and environmental on the organisms.

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\r\n Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, is a comprehensive and authoritative study that deals with parent, placenta, and foetus and the continuous changes that occur in each and relation to discussing a broad range of topics, including nanoparticles and radiation, gases and solvents, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and metals, amongst others along With a special focus on placental toxicity. Reproductive toxicity includes the effects of a toxic substance on the reproductive ability of an organism and later stages of development of the offspring and tis is as well referred to as an adverse effects of chemicals substances on sexual functioning and fertility in reproducing individuals, as well as later developmental toxicity which is noticed in the offspring. Developmental toxicity refers to the adverse effects induced during the stages of pregnancy, or as a result of parental exposure to chemicals during pregnancy or at any point in the life span of the organism during its stages of development.

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\r\n Systemic Toxicology refers to toxic side effects which might be caused due to the result of absorption, distribution Metabolism of a substance that affects the whole body rather than a specific tissue or Organs or an area distant from its entry point. As in many cases the chemicals that produce systemic toxicity does not cause a similar level of toxicity in every part or organs, but generally cause major toxicity to a single or multiple organs which are thus referred to as the target organs of toxicity for that chemical substance. Systemic toxicology deals with the study of adverse effects of a substance on various organs and tissues in the living organism. Toxicity is often classified as acute, sub-acute and chronic.

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\r\n Toxicology testing is also referred to as safety assessment testing, or toxicity testing, which is normally conducted to determine the level to which a substance or a chemical can deteriorate a biotic or abiotic component. It is often conducted using standard test procedures to match with governing regulation, regularly practiced in case of medicines, pesticides, and other chemical components. Toxicology is a part of the field of pre-clinical development. Stages of in vitro and in vivo research are conducted to estimate and determine the safe concentration / usable doses of the chemical that can be exposed in organisms. Toxicological tastings are progressively utilised in majority of Drug testing procedures and majorly carried out by research and Development in Pharmaceutical industry, and other biotechnology companies or to measure the impacts of a constrained exposure of a creature to a substance and developments in the same.

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\r\n Exposure to the chemical compounds that can induce varying effects, ranging from instant mortality to a gradual process of progression of carcinogenesis is called as Chemical Carcinogenesis. The stages involved in carcinogenesis normally are initiation, promotion and progression which are characterised by structural and functional modifications and result from genetic and/or epigenetic alterations/ Changes. These genetic modifications include mutations in genes that control cell proliferation, cell death and DNA repair and proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressing genes. The epigenetic factors, which are considered as being non-genetic in character, can also contribute to carcinogenesis via epigenetic mechanisms which silence gene expression.

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\r\n Toxicological studies have a very prominent role in the process of drug testing and determining the dose effects of the drug with respect to the individuals. The toxicology helps us determine the lethal dose concentration and the minimum effective concentration and safety window of a drug and therapeutic index of the drug and also useful in Therapeutic drug monitoring which plays a major role in the maintenance of drug concentration in the patients who has hepatic failure and prevent drug over dosage.

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\r\n Here is some of the main application of the toxicology in the fields such as Medical toxicology, Clinical toxicology, Computational toxicology.

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